The Enigma is a machine used by the Germans to create encrypted messages. Virtually all computers today, from toys to supercomputers costing millions of dollars, are variations on the computer architecture that John von Neumann created on the foundation of the work of Alan Turing's work in the 1940s.
Definition of a Computer - before 1935, a computer was a person who performed arithmetic calculations.
Between 19 the definition referred to a machine, rather than a person.
The modern machine definition is based on von Neumann's concepts: Charles Babbage (1792-1871) - Difference Engine, Analytical Engine.
Ada Byron, daughter of the poet, Lord Byron, worked with him.
Today "von Neumann architecture" often refers to the sequential nature of computers based on this model. Edward Roberts and others, as the inventor of the first computer. They drew on Alansoff's work to create the ENIAC, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. Atanasoff's being legally declared as the inventor. Their company was acquired by by Remington Rand, which merged into the Sperry Rand Corp. Zuse's Z1, his contender for the first freely programmable computer, contained all the basic components of a modern computer (control unit, memory, micro sequences, etc.).
The limited-function vacuum-tube device had limited capabilities and did not have a central. Though Atanasoff got legal status for his achievement, many historians still give credit to J. Mauchly the founding fathers of the modern computer. Zuse, because of the scarcity of material during WW II, used discarded video film as punch cards.
It was not programmable, but could solve differential equations using binary arithmetic. Eckert and Mauchly formed the first computer company in 1946. They introduced the first modern binany computer with the Binary Automatic Computer (BINAC), which stored information on magnetic tape rather than punched cards. Like a modern computer, it was adaptable for different purposes and used on/off switch relays, a binary system of 1s and 0s (on = 1, off = 0). Edward Roberts -- developed the MITS Altair 8800 in 1975.
His description, in 1837, of the Analytical Engine, a mechanical digital computer anticipated virtually every aspect of present-day computers. Worked on the Colossus (code breaking machine, precursor to the computer) and the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine).
Sketch of the Engine and notes by Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace. Noted for many brilliant ideas, Turing is perhaps best remembered for the concepts of the Turing Test for Artificial Intelligence and the Turing Machine, an abstract model for modeling computer operations.
The Turing Test is the "acid test" of true artificial intelligence, as defined by the English scientist Alan Turing. A child prodigy in mathematics, authored landmark paper explaining how programs could be stored as data.
In the 1940s, he said "a machine has artificial intelligence when there is no discernible difference between the conversation generated by the machine and that of an intelligent person." Turing was instrumental in breaking the German enigma code during WWII with his Bombe computing machine. (Unlike ENIAC, which had to be re-wired to be re-programmed.).